Before treating the disease, it is necessary for you to have a clear diagnosis firstly. For some patients, the main reason why their Nephrotic Syndrome develops to kidney failure or even uremia is that their diagnosis is not accurate. Now let’s have a look at the 11 indispensable tests for Nephrotic Syndrome patients.
1. Blood routine test and ESR
Some patients present microcytic hypochromic anemia. And some cases present increased blood platelet and ESR.
2. Urine analysis
Urine protein is the main basis of diagnosis. For Nephrotic Syndrome patients, their urine protein is often 2+-4+, and urine protein/urine creatinine>2. Urine red blood cells increase. For most cases, hyaline cast, granular casts and oval DRFB are often seen. Sometimes fatty cast presents. Congenital Nephrotic Syndrome patients often have positive urine glucose.
3. 24h urine protein
It is more than 3.5g.
4. Liver function
Nephrotic Syndrome patients often have hypoproteinemia, and serum albumin =<25g/L. Plasma albumin/globulin and the decrease degree of serum albumin have negative correlation with urine protein.
5. Kidney function
Type I Nephrotic Syndrome: kidney function is normal or just increases temporarily. Type II Nephrotic Syndrome has abnormality to certain degree.
6. Lipid profile
Almost all lipoprotein compositions increase. Type 1 patients have obvious increase in serum triglyceride, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and VLDL. Type II patients have normal or slightly increased cholesterol level.
7. Serum protein electrophoresis
α2-globulin and β-globulin increases, but α1-globulin and γ-globulin is normal or decreases.
8. Immune globulin
IgG decreases, but IgA, IgM and IgE increases.
9. Rheumatism tests
Antinuclear antibodies, anti-dsDNA and anti-Sm are positive, but for Nephrotic Syndrome caused by nephritis, CH50 may decrease.
10. Blood or urine fibrin degradation products test
It is normal for Type 1 patients, while it increases for Type 2 patients.
11. Blood coagulation factor
Factor Ⅳ and Ⅵ decreases, while factor Ⅴ, Ⅷ, Ⅹ and Fib increase.
12 Renal biopsy
It is unnecessary. For patients who are steroid-resistant or with unexplained acute progression, you can do renal biopsy, but there are other ways to make it clear.
The above are the 11 indispensable tests for Nephrotic Syndrome patients. Hope it can help you. For more information on Nephrotic Syndrome, please leave a message below or contact online doctor.